Whitespace is any non-empty string containing only characters that have the Pattern_White_Space Unicode property, namely:

  • U+0009 (horizontal tab, '\t')

  • U+000A (line feed, '\n')

  • U+000B (vertical tab)

  • U+000C (form feed)

  • U+000D (carriage return, '\r')

  • U+0020 (space, ' ')

  • U+0085 (next line)

  • U+200E (left-to-right mark)

  • U+200F (right-to-left mark)

  • U+2028 (line separator)

  • U+2029 (paragraph separator)

Cairo is a "free-form" language, meaning that all forms of whitespace serve only to separate tokens in the grammar, and have no semantic significance.

A Cairo program has identical meaning if each whitespace element is replaced with any other legal whitespace element, such as a single space character.